Public sector strikes continued in Germany on Tuesday after a walkout by more than 10,000 workers in three states on Monday.
Hospitals and school closures as well as little or no public transport running caused disruption in many large cities including the financial capital Frankfurt.
Unions warned of further strikes across the entire country if their demands over pay were not met.
"They're always telling us about crisis, crisis, crisis. But there are employees, married with two children, who have to live on 1,400 euros after tax, that is unbearable, totally unbearable," said striking worker Rudiger Maas.
Strikers are demanding a wage rise of 6.5 percent or at least 200 euros a month for two million workers, which employers have dismissed as unrealistic.
Unions say years of pay restraint are one reason that Europe's largest economy has been booming during the eurozone crisis.